How to Ensure Efficient Heat Dissipation for Outdoor LED Display Screens?

High temperatures can rapidly increase the failure rate of electronic components, leading to a decrease in the reliability of outdoor LED displays.

In order to control the temperature of the electronic components inside outdoor LED displays and ensure that they do not exceed the specified maximum allowable temperature in the working environment conditions of outdoor LED displays, heat dissipation design is required.

How can we achieve low-cost and high-quality heat dissipation design for outdoor LED displays? Let's share some tips below.

Three basic ways for heat transfer in outdoor LED displays

  • Conduction: Gas conduction results from irregular collisions between gas molecules. Heat conduction in metal conductors is mainly achieved through the movement of free electrons. Heat conduction in non-conductive solids is accomplished through the vibration of lattice structures. The mechanism of heat conduction in liquids mainly relies on elastic waves.

  • Convection: Convection refers to the heat transfer process caused by relative displacement between different parts of a fluid. Convection only occurs in fluids and must be accompanied by heat conduction. The heat exchange process that occurs when a fluid flows over the surface of an object is called convective heat exchange. Convection arising from the density difference between the cold and hot parts of a fluid is called natural convection. If the fluid's motion is caused by external forces (such as a fan), it is called forced convection.

  • Radiation: The process by which an object transfers energy in the form of electromagnetic waves is called thermal radiation. Radiation energy can be transmitted in a vacuum, and there is energy conversion in the form of heat energy into radiation energy and vice versa.

When choosing a heat dissipation method, factors to consider should include the heat flux density, volumetric power density, total power consumption, surface area, volume, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, air pressure, dust, etc.) of outdoor LED displays. Based on heat transfer mechanisms, heat dissipation methods include natural cooling, forced air cooling, direct liquid cooling, evaporative cooling, thermoelectric cooling, and heat pipe heat transfer.

Heat dissipation design for outdoor LED displays

The heat exchange area between the heated electronic components and the cold air, as well as the temperature difference between them, directly affect the heat dissipation effect. This involves the design of the air flow rate entering the enclosure of outdoor LED displays and the design of the air duct.

When designing ventilation ducts, straight ducts should be used whenever possible to transport air, avoiding sharp bends or curves in ducts. The expansion angle should not exceed 20° while the cone angle of contraction should not be greater than 60°. Ventilation ducts should be sealed as much as possible, and all overlaps should be in the direction of flow.

Precautions for the enclosure design of outdoor LED displays

The exhaust ports should be located near the upper side of the enclosure. The air intake should be located on the lower side of the enclosure, but not too low to prevent dirt and water from entering the enclosure installed on the ground.

When designing, natural convection should help forced convection. Air should circulate from the bottom towards the top of the enclosure, and dedicated air intake or exhaust ports should be used. The cooling air should pass through the electronic components that generate heat in the LED display while preventing airflow short circuits.

The air intake and exhaust outlets should have filters to prevent debris from entering the enclosure. When designing, ensure that the air intake and exhaust outlets are far apart and avoid reusing cooling air. The direction of the radiator grooves should be parallel to the airflow, and they should not block the airflow.